Monthly Archives: February 2017

Nice B Wells Pt photos

A few nice b wells pt images I found: forex aaa 2012 Kia Pride Sedan taxi
b wells pt
Image by Aero7MY
Photographed in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia

Assembly : Indonesia

Operator : ???

The second generation Kia Rio 4-door is also used as a taxi here in Bali, but to a much lesser extent than the Toyota Limo. It’s called the Kia New Pride Sedan in Indonesia, and it was locally assembled and aggressively marketed by PT. KIA Mobil Indonesia as an alternative to the popular Limo. I saw quite a few of them in Bali, and I also managed to hitch a ride in one; it’s not a bad car, and it felt well-put-together.

I’m surprised Malaysia did not get this generation of the Kia Rio sedan, we only got the hatchback version. The same is true for the current generation Kia Rio. If Naza-Kia assembled the Kia Rio sedan in Malaysia, I’m willing to bet that it would be a strong and capable B-segment competitor to the Japanese heavyweights ( Vios, Almera, City ). البورصة القطرية شاشة التداول 24_The_leaden_hail_was_all_around_us
b wells pt
Image by Jim Surkamp

C&O Canal – A Tenuous Pawn (2) With Author Timothy R. Snyder by Jim Surkamp
9826 words

C&O Canal – A Tenuous Pawn (2) With Author Timothy R. Snyder by Jim Surkamp
TRT: 19:16

Made possible with the generous support of American Public University System, providing an affordable, quality, online education. The video and post do not reflect any modern-day policies or positions of American Public University System, and their content is intended to encourage discussion and better understanding of the past. More . . .


The Burning Boats 1861-1865 Pt. 2 With Author Timothy R. Snyder


We learn that upwards of one hundred boats lying at Williamsport and other points below and above, which have been prevented from passing down with their freight by the rebel troops at Harper’s Ferry; consequently all business upon the Canal has been suspended, and thousands directly and indirectly interested in its trade and commerce thrown out of employment. – Herald Torch Light, June 5, 1861.


In late May, 1861, Thomas Jonathan Jackson was replaced in command of Harper’s Ferry by Joseph E. Johnston. Confederates probably wanted a calmer head, an older man, a wiser man. Jackson had engaged in a bunch of provocative acts at a time when the Confederates were trying to woo Maryland to their cause. Ironically, just as Johnston took command, just a week earlier or so, the Maryland General Assembly adjourned. They took no steps towards secession, and then Union troops invaded northern Virginia, opposite Washington, D.C. on May 28th, occupying Alexandria, Arlington – the high ground opposite Washington, D.C. As a result, Johnston will have a free reign. It’s evident a shooting war is on. Maryland was taking no immediate steps towards secession. So Johnston then would take steps to destroy both the B and O railroad and the C&O canal, prior to his evacuating Harper’s Ferry. His troops attack the canal opposite Harper’s Ferry and burned over twenty-five canal boats and damaged a couple of locks. He also sent parties out to attempt to breach Dams No. 4 and 5 near Williamsport. They were unsuccessful, but these were first attempts to attack those dams.


Information reached here that an attempt was made by the Virginia rebels, on Saturday (June 9) and Sunday (June 10) nights last, to destroy Dams No. 4 and 5 on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. At No. 5 they were met by the brave Guards of Clear Spring, who, after considerable skirmishing, succeeded in repulsing them, killing one of their men. The rebels endeavored to blow up the dam by means of a blast, for which purpose they had procured four kegs of powder, but were driven off before they were able to injure it. At Dam No. 4 some damage was done to the Canal, but we learn none to the Dam itself. It is clearly the duty of every loyal citizen in the county to rally to the defence and protection of the property of the Canal Company. – The Herald of Freedom and Torch Light, June 12, 1861.


During that attack on the Dams, Redmond Burke, an Irishman who later became a bushwhacker and courier for Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and was killed in 1862 by Federal troops in Shepherdstown – he was every night, using a dark lantern was visiting Dam No. 4 with two of his sons and they worked at drilling for dynamite holes in the rockbed beneath the Dam, a Dam he once built with others. – Philadelphia Public Ledger June 14, 1861. Most people are more aware of Jackson’s later attempts to disable the dams in December of 1861. After the Confederates evacuated, canal traffic was resumed in late August, 1861. They did try to harass canal traffic.


In fact, Turner Ashby, the Confederate cavalryman, rode to Richmond, offering to lead an expedition to break the canal. And a staff officer in Richmond wrote that it as "a cherished object” of the Confederate government for the B andO railroad and the C&O canal both to have been severed or disabled. Monday-Wednesday – September 9-11, 1861: Shepherdstown/Bridgeport Lock No. 38.


Confederaate cavalryman Harry Gilmore wrote: While encamped near Morgan’s Spring, parties, of which I was generally one, would be sent frequently to the Potomac for the purpose of blockading the canal on the Maryland side, by which immense supplies of coal and provisions were brought to the capital. We would go down before daylight, conceal ourselves behind rocks or trees, or in some small building, and, when the sun was up, not a soldier or boat could pass without our taking a crack at them, and generally with effect, for we were all good shots. We became a perfect pest to them, and many an effort was made in vain to dislodge us; but wo could not be found, for every day we were in a new spot, miles apart. Friday-Sunday – September 13-15, 1861: Shepherdstown, Va.


A Brisk Skirmish — We learn that a spirited skirmish took place on Friday last (Sept. 13), between the rebels at Shepherdstown, and the Federal troops stationed opposite the town on the Maryland side. The troops fired at each other across the river first with small arms, and then with cannon. When the rebels commenced firing with a cannon, our troops procured two old six pounders from Sharpsburg, and planted them on the borders of the river, and returned the fire with vigor, sending balls and other missiles into the town, which soon put the enemy to flight, and terminated the engagement. On our side a tow boy on the canal was killed, but none of the troops were hurt; on theirs it is believed that several were killed and wounded. – The Herald of Freedom and Torch Light, September 18, 1861.


Major J. Parker Gould of the 13th Massachusetts in Sharpsburg wrote: There was a skirmish yesterday at Shepherdstown between the rebels and our troops. A canal-boat was passing at the time and 1 boatman was mortally wounded. The Confederates seem to know our weakness in numbers, and are becoming saucy.


There was a serious flood in November that put the canal out of commission; but in December, canal boats began to move again toward Cumberland. Reports were coming that eighty-seven boats had cleared Cumberland and carried 7,613 tons of coal, 633 tons of lumber, cord wood, cooperage, eighty tons of hay and oats –


all heading to Harpers Ferry and Sandy Hook where at least half of that overall load would be loaded on eastbound Baltimore and Ohio cars. And those emptied cars would be heading back up to Cumberland imminently.


"Stonewall" Jackson, by this time his name is "Stonewall," (he earned that name at First Manassas, First Bull Run), by this time his headquarters was at Winchester and he sent a number of expeditions to the north to disable Dam No. 5 and wanted to disable Dam No. 4. While the destruction of both dams was important to the Confederates,


Dam No. 5 was Jackson’s first choice. Why? Both dams were built logged-cribbed and rock-filled in the 1830s. Dam No. 4’s leakiness had been fixed with new masonry by the spring of 1861. But Dam No. 5 was, not only still leaking and prone to sabotage, but it was just that much


further up river away from Federal General Banks’ men further east in Frederick, Maryland. Friday – December 6, 1861: Dam No. 5. Saturday-Monday – December 7-9, 1861: Dam No. 5. The first one was in the first week of December against Dam No. 5. It was led by Turner Ashby, All of them were a failure.


The Union troops were strongly posted and, of course, they had the icy Potomac River between them. Working conditions were difficult. The Confederates tried to divert water around the Virginia end of the dam. They also tried to cut the wooden cribbing of the dam on the Virginia side of the dam. But the strongly posted Union sharpshooters prevented them from inflicting any damage. Saturday-Sunday – December 7 thru -8 – Federal


Col. Samuel Leonard Turns the Tables: Confederate Major Elisha Franklin Paxton of the 27th Va., who arrived at Dam No. 5 on the Virginia side near dusk that Saturday, December 7th, seemed to have his work of dam destruction well under control. With arms fire for cover, for 5 hours his men worked at destroying the Dam in the ice cold water. Col. Samuel Leonard of the 13th Massachusetts saw that his men, armed with short-range smoothbores at Dam No. 5 couldn’t withstand the onslaught from Confederate Rockbridge Artillery Captain William McLaughlin’s six gun battery and the fire of 600 better armed regulars firing from the Virginia side. So Col. Leonard gave new orders, using the nighttime to change things. He replaced the company with another company from Williamsport that had much better Enfield rifled muskets. Leonard switched two companies sending the C company with shorter-range smoothbore rifles from Dam No. 5 to No. 4 and replacing them with Company G at the besieged Dam No. 5. William McLaughlin’s Rockbridge Artillery began early the next morning – Sunday, December 8th – this time, firing boldly right from the brink of the river. But they became surprised to face a barrage of fire that was much more lethal than the day before. They were driven back and after dark they snuck back to retrieve their pieces.


Confederate Paxton, supervising the assault, wrote later: At daybreak Sunday morning our cannon opened fire upon them again, but they were so sheltered in the canal from which in the meantime they had drawn off the water that it was found impossible to dislodge them. As my workmen could not be protected against the enemy’s fire, I found it necessary to abandon the enterprise.


Charles E. Davis of the 13th Massachusetts remembered the vast difference bertween the Enfield rifled muskets and the smoothbores: Prior to our arrival, this part of the river was protected by troops supplied with the old smooth-bore musket of a very antiquated pattern, with too little power to carry a bullet across the river, so that they were a


constant source of ridicule by the enemy, who were much better armed, and who amused themselves by coming down to the river daily, and placing the thumb of the right hand to the nose, and the thumb of the left hand to the little finger of the right hand,


would make rapid motions with the fingers, to the great exasperation of the Union men, who were powerless to prevent it. After we were placed there with our Enfield rifles, there was less time spent in arranging their fingers, and more in the use of their feet. Late that Sunday, December 8th,

Harry Gilmore and his friend, Welch, try to recover Confederate pieces near the shore.


The enemy were all concealed behind the rip-rap walls of the canal, and impossible to shell them out. Our men were prevented from limbering and carrying off our pieces by a very hot fire of musketry from the enemy on the other bank; and, when two or three men had been wounded, Colonel Ashby rode up, and told Captain McLaughlin that the guns must be brought away, and also the horses of a lieutenant and sergeant tied near them; but not a man of the battery would volunteer to go after them. I proposed to Welch that we should procure the horses. He agreed, and, without saying a word to anyone, we tied our horses behind the cliff; and crawled to within two hundred yards of the horses and guns, when the enemy opened on us a brisk fire from the canal. Without stopping, we made a dash for the horses, and never probably before were halters unloosed in so short a time. This done, we leaped on them and fled, lying flat on their necks.


The leaden hail was all around us, but we soon got out of range, and, vaulting on our own, we led the recovered horses back, very much to the amusement of the colonel and the chagrin of the lieutenant and sergeant, when we said, "Gentlemen, here are your horses. Don’t get them into such a tight place again." Welch and I then offered to take our company and bring off the guns; but Captain McLaughlin would not consent, bringing them away himself after night. Soon after Welch and I had recovered the horses, I was lying down in a field, under cover of a knoll, my horse browsing in the bottom, when Colonel Ashby came and informed me that Captain Moore, of the 2d Virginia Infantry, was in a very precarious position in a large mill, and he wished me to take a message to him, which must be done on foot. I took the message and started on this dangerous mission, being obliged, for five hundred yards, to cross in full view of the enemy on the other side of the river. Of course I was in a great hurry to accomplish my task; and, as soon as I got within range of their muskets, I started at full speed across the flat, the balls flying around, and cutting up the sod in a lively manner. Three or four times I halted, and found refuge behind piles of friendly rocks or trees to take breath. At last I reached the mill in safety, and delivered the message, I returned in greater fear than ever, lest I might receive a wound in the back , a soldier’s dread; but I reported all safe to Colonel Ashby, and was fully repaid, by his kind thanks and complimentary speeches.

The storm that night was terrific, and the men suffered awfully from cold. One of our


officers had a flagon of whisky, and, under the pressing necessities of the case, I stole it from his ambulance and divided it among the field officers. Next morning the officer was in a towering rage about it. A Confederate team crept down to the dam,


gathered at its southern abutment with the idea of digging a ditch around the southern end of the dam, so the flowing water would undermine the dam, causing it to collapse. The dam didn’t collapse because the water level dropped quickly after their work, reducing the diverted stream to a trickle.


During the second attempt, it was actually at Dam No. 4, again led by Ashby during the second week of December, it was a failure as well. Wednesday – December 11, 1861: Dam No. 4 (north of Shepherdstown, Va.} Initially the Confederates were spied opposite Dam No. 4. They disappeared. The 12th Indiana, who was on duty there at Dam No. 4, sent a party of men across to see if the Confederates had,indeed, left. They were captured, as the most significant thing that occurred there. That precipitated a sharp exchange, but no damage was done to the canal.


The third attempt was the one that Jackson attended in person. It was during the third week of December for about five days. The Confederates were opposite, arrayed from Falling Waters to Little Georgetown. They made threats and demonstrations as if they were going to cross the river at Falling Waters, where their main intention was to try to breach Dam No. 5.


Tuesday – Dec. 17 – Confederate Captain Raleigh T. Colston of Berkeley County led a team onto Dam No. 5

after dark, and through the night hacked away at

the log cribbing in the middle of the dam.


The rubble held by the log cribs was piled up on the dam so that by morning of the 18th the piled rubble atop the still-standing dam was a breastworks shielding them from Federals gunfire. At daybreak the Federals discovered the breastworks.


Massachusetts soldiers went down river and found a location from which they could bring fire upon the workers and soon drove the southerners from the dam and into the millhouse. For cover Charlestown-born


artillerist Roger Preston Chew’s two artillery pieces had been shelling a brick house on the Maryland side, where the shooting was coming from. But on December 19th, Wednesday,


Battery E of the 1st Pennsylvania Artillery answered with two ten pound parrotts forcing Chew to take cover fifty yards to their right.


Lt. William Thomas Poague of the Confederate Rockbridge Artillery remembered seeing Chew and others shrunk behind a large tree with shells flying by, to the left and to the right. Finally, on the last day, I think it was December 20th, the last day of the expedition, Jackson, in the words of one of his officers, "Yankee’d the Yankees," meaning that he had tricked them. He had boats made to potentially cross the river in a full view of the Union troops at Dam No. 5. He sent them up river toward Little Georgetown. The Union troops were sure that he was going to cross there. Threats had been made the previous day. So they all followed and apparently left the work party with an evening to work on the dam without being fired upon. They heard timber breaking and soon the dam had been breached and (they) left. The very next day the Union Gen. Banks reports that canal


boats are still traveling in both directions. Jackson sent one more, small expedition back to Dam No. 5. They spent two nights at the dam – January 1st and January 2nd; and one of their men in charge there wrote that they spent two additional nights widening the breach.

استثمار الذهب افضل من العقار Image taken from page 749 of ‘[The Beauties of England and Wales; or, Delineations, topographical, historical, and descriptive, of each country. Embellished with engravings. (vol. 1-6 by E. W. Brayley and J. Britton; vol. 7 by E. W. Brayley; vol. 8 by E.
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Image by The British Library
Image taken from: فوركس السعودية Title: "[The Beauties of England and Wales; or, Delineations, topographical, historical, and descriptive, of each country. Embellished with engravings. (vol. 1-6 by E. W. Brayley and J. Britton; vol. 7 by E. W. Brayley; vol. 8 by E. W. Brayley; vol. 9 by J. Britton; vol. 10, pt. 1, 2, by E. W. Brayley; vol. 10, pt. 3 by the Rev. Joseph Nightingale; vol. 10, pt. 4 by J. Norris Brewer; vol. 11 by the Rev. J. Evans and J. Britton; vol. 12, pt. 1 by the Rev. J. Hodgson and Mr. F. C. Laird; vol. 12, pt. 2 by J. N. Brewer; vol. 13 by the Rev. J. Nightingale; vol. 14 by Frederic Shoberl; vol. 15 by J. Britton, J. Norris Brewer, J. Hodgson, F. C. Laird; vol. 16 by John Bigland; vol. 17 by the Rev. J. Evans; vol. 18 by Thomas Rees.) L.P.]"
håkan strömberg forex Author: Britton, John
forex tekniska högskolan Contributor: BIGLAND, John.
forex reviews 24 Contributor: BRAYLEY, Edward Wedlake.
forex factory news app Contributor: EVANS, John – B.A., of Jesus College, Oxford
اسهل منصة تداول فوركس Contributor: HODGSON, John – M.R.S.L., Vicar of Hartburn
كيف التداول بالذهب Contributor: LAIRD, Francis C.
الاسواق الاسهم السعودية Contributor: NIGHTINGALE, Joseph.
للبيع اسهم جمعية الاتحاد دبي يونيو 2013 Contributor: REES, Thomas – F.S.A
فرنسي تداول الاسهم Shelfmark: "British Library HMNTS 10361.d.1.", "British Library HMNTS 10368.w.41." سعر اسهم ام القرى Volume: 12
forex kostnad Page: 749 حقيقة الفوركس Place of Publishing: London RES 531 Week 9 Assignment 7 Organization of the Study Date of Publishing: 1801
اكسفوريكس Publisher: Vernor, Hood & Sharpe, etc.
اسهم الاهلي للبيع Edition: [Another edition.]
Issuance: monographic
Identifier: 000479757

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Dusk at Mapoutahi Pa (Goat Island) Blueskin Bay Otago
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The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 13, Issue 11 1939

Mapoutahi Pa (Goat Island Blueskin Bay)The Massacre at Mapoutahi Pa
The Story of a Southern Maori Inter-Tribal War Before The Coming of the Pakeha
(By R. K. McFarlane.)
Legend and tradition have enriched the North Island of New Zealand with a wealth of knowledge concerning the history of the Maori before the advent of the white man. On the other hand there is perhaps not so much tradition connected with the southern Maori which enables us to follows his doings before the pakeha came. This is due chiefly to the fact that the Maoris colonised the southern part of New Zealand a long time after their first arrival, and then only very sparsely on account of the more rigorous climate. Then again, it is on record that the southern Maori was several times almost exterminated by his overpowering northern brother.
Although little Maori history about Dunedin is known, tradition has recorded for us two outstanding episodes. Both are tragic—one, a tragic romance on the coast near the Taieri, the other a tragic massacre, also on the coast about fifteen miles north of Dunedin.
It is the latter which I propose to relate.
From two sources only could I get information about this intensely interesting history. The first was a brief account in a small hand-book entitled “Dunedin and its Neighbourhood,” published in 1904—the other a newspaper article of 1929 regarding research carried out among the Maoris concerning Mapoutahi Pa. The latter sums up very well the difficulties of acquiring information, as the old Maori is passing on:—
“There is much which remains to be told concerning the history of the Maori Race in Otago and with the passing of the years traditions as they relate to historic incidents are becoming more and more extinct … however it is possible to trace the history of Mapoutahi Pa from the tradition handed down from generation to generation.”
Soon after leaving Purakanui station the traveller by train northwards from Dunedin sees from his window as the train winds its way round the precipitous cliff face a green and picturesque little island almost completely surrounded by steep cliffs, and lying close to the long stretch of white sand washed by rows of creamy breakers which is Purakanui Beach. As the panorama unfolds it can be seen that this so-called island is really a small peninsula connected to the high cliff of the mainland by a small isthmus three or four feet wide and a few yards long. On one side of this neck of land is a little golden half-moon beach, while on the other side the sea rushes in with a turbulent swell threatening to undermine the narrow pathway. On the slopes of the “island” itself long green grass sways in the sea breeze, while the leaves of the numerous cabbage trees rustle continually as if mournfully trying to tell the story that exists beneath their roots.
“There is nothing to suggest the tragedy of which it was once the scene, yet these green slopes once ran red with blood and the yells of the victors and the vanquished could have been heard above the noise of the surf that laves its rocky base.”
Goat Island it is called, no doubt because its outline bears some resemblance to the head of a goat. There in the 18th century stood a fortified pa—Mapoutahi Pa.
Some six or seven generations ago a chief named Taoka or Taonga lived with his people in a kaika near Timaru. As was customary at times he set out with a small party to visit his cousin, Te Wera, of Ngatimamoe, who had a large pa at Karitane Peninsula, or Huriawa. After enjoying Te Wera’s hospitality for three days
Taoka set out with his host, who it might be mentioned was a man of very fiery temper (he had killed his own wife—a princess of the Kaitahu) to visit another relative, Kapo, in Mapoutahi Pa, at Purakanui. While staying here these two—Te Wera and Taoka—as relatives often do, had a heated argument which developed into an open quarrel, resulting unfortunately in Te Wera killing Taoka’s son. Taoka vowing vengeance returned to Timaru, gathered all his fighting men about him and laid siege to Karitane Pa. For twelve long months he waited, but only once did any of his men gain entrance—several climbed up a blow-hole into the pa and stole Te Wera’s god-stick. Next day Te Wera saw them doing a haka and, noticing the loss of his god-stick, induced his tohunga to chant for its return, whereupon it came flying back through the air to him.
Unable to sack the Karitane Pa, whose massive entrenchments remain to-day, Taoka went home but came back again the following winter and this time made to attack the Mapoutahi Pa whose chief, Pakihaukea, was a close ally of Te Wera. After besieging the pa for ten days, since both the invaders and defenders were wary, Taoka, thirsting for the blood of his foeman and seeing a snow storm approaching, decided that the hour for revenge had come. Snow fell for many hours. That night, with the snow eighteen inches deep and all the hillside quiet he sent out a scout to ascertain if the palisade were defended. The scout returned to say that it was fully guarded. Not satisfied, Taoka himself crept silently to the palisade and discovered that the supposed guards were merely dummies hanging from the palisade and moving occasionally as the wind caught them. The page 44 besieged natives in the pa had committed the same human error which many besieged peoples in European and ancient history had done. They had thought themselves secure within their walls and had relaxed guard.
Taoka and his men silently scaled the palisade and cautiously arranged themselves among the whares. Suddenly the blood-curdling war-cry of the invaders roused the sleeping natives and, dazed by sleep, as they stumbled from their whares, they fell victims to the weapons of the enemy. Altogether, 250 were mercilessly slaughtered, and only one or two escaped by rushing to the cliff edge and throwing themselves 60 feet or 70 feet into the sea.
As day dawned the rising sun revealed a ghastly sight. The dusky bodies of the victims had been piled in a huge heap and covered in places with a mantle of snow they resembled a huge pile of wood. So they named the place Purakanui, meaning “a large pile of wood.” That was about the year 1750 and to-day, nearly 200 years later, little evidence remains of that terrible massacre save the name of the district and the line of the trenches beneath the palisade in which human bones have been found.
Goat Island is now a scenic and historic reserve under the administration of the Otago University Museum, where there is a model of the “island” and the pa.
To-day as the holiday maker wanders over its sunny slopes or fishes from its craggy rocks or shouts as he plays in the surf, he does not think much of its tragic history—it would seem absurd. But as night falls and the rising moon casts long dim shadows of the rustling cabbage trees across the grass it almost seems that one can hear sad cries above the moan of the surf

Traditions and Legends. Collected from the natives of Murihiku. (Southland, New Zealand)
H. Beattie Volume 25 1916
The Kai-Tahu, who came down the coast, distinguished themselves by fighting one another. It is very difficult to straighten out the narrative of that warfare, but here it is as well as I could disentangle it. Taoka is often called Te Wera’s uncle, and then again they are termed cousins and sometimes brothers—in any case the ties of blood should have knit them together, instead of which we find them usually at loggerheads, and frequently fighting in deadly feud. It has been mentioned before that there were two chiefs named Moki. The first was the son of Tuahu-riri, and has been mentioned already, but the second Moki, the son of Te Rua-hikihiki, now comes into the story. Te Rua-hikihiki married two sisters, and by the elder one he had Te Matauira, Moki and other sons, and Uritoko, a daughter; and by the younger one he had a son, Taoka. This last named chief set out from Kaiapoi with the intention of vanquishing the Kati-Mamoe down the coast, and he built pas at O-taoka, in South Canterbury, and at Katiki, in North Otago, and there we will leave him for the present.
Moki lived with the Kati-Mamoe people at Pukekura (Otago Heads). His child died, and to “pay for it,” as the narrator expressed it, he sent out a small party under Kapo to kill someone as utu.
Te Wera and Patuki had a sister who had married Te Rehu, who lived at Pu-rakau-nui, and they were on a visit to her from their pa near Wai-koua-iti. They were sitting in Te Rehu’s whare one evening, when Kapo stole up to the building and hurled a spear through the – 16 little window. Te Rehu ducked, and the spear struck and killed his father, whose name the narrator could not recall. Kapo’s men surrounded the whare and waited for daylight. It was a very dark night, and Te Rehu burrowed under the wall and escaped with the intention of going to Wai-koua-iti for help. Te Wera and Patuki would not run from a foe so they remained behind, and Te Wera repeated a long karakia. He got through the first half of it fluently, but the second half was very halting. Again he tried with the same result, so they knew that one was to be killed and one escape. Just before it was daylight they pulled back the door suddenly and made a dash for it. Patuki, who was in advance, was killed, but Te Wera had a marvellous escape and rushed to a waka-hunua (double canoe) and dodged under the platform and dived. He kept under the water a long time and covered a good distance. When he was safe across on the other shore he called out to the war-party to be alert, to sleep with their wives and feed their children well, for he was coming to avenge. Patuki. Te Wera made straight for Pa-katata, on Huri-awa peninsula, and found that Te Rehu had got there shortly before, and the people were lamenting for Te Wera and Patuki. In revenge for Patuki’s death Te Wera sailed round into Otago Harbour, and surprising some women getting whitau (flax), he slew them and cut off their heads. The canoe then went under Pukekura pa, and the heads were held up to the view of the inmates.
Having thus squared accounts with the Pukekura people, Te Wera desired to make peace with Moki, and he asked Taoka to come and make the negotiations. Taoka, who was then at O-tipua, in South Canterbury, went to Pukekura, and made a fairly lengthy visit there, after which he canoed to Timaru, and never went near Te Wera, much to the latter’s annoyance and disgust. Te Wera went to make peace himself, but his good intentions were not carried out. While he was talking before Pukekura, a man named Te Taoho amused himself by throwing small sticks at the visitors. Te Aruhe, the hot-headed son of Te Wera, said, “We are not children to let sticks be thrown at us,” and started hostilities. As soon as the struggle commenced Te Wera killed Kapo at once. Te Taoho escaped, and will be mentioned later on. One of the few men who was saved of those at Pukekura, was Moehuka. He did not like the look of things when the visitors appeared, and retired to the top of a hill near before the fight began, recognising that discretion was the better part of valour. The narrator could not say whether Moki was killed here or not. During the slaughter of the people of the pa Te Wera saw a small boy, named Taikawa, and spared his life. This Taikawa comes into the history later on. After this killing, Te Wera went back to Pa-katata for a – 17 while, and then to Timaru to see Taoka, but found that the latter was away at O-tipua. Taoka’s son, Roko-marae-roa, was at Timaru, however, and Te Wera killed him in retaliation for the trick Taoka had played on him. He sent two chiefs (whose names the narrator had forgotten) to tell Taoka that he had killed his son. He thought that Taoka would kill these two men of rank to equalise the killing of his son. Taoka was not at home when the two chiefs called, so they gave Taoka’s wives the message, and set out back to Te Wera. Night overtaking them they camped on the beach. When Taoka returned to his home towards evening and was told the news, he was very wrathful, and set out in pursuit of the messengers, but he missed them in the darkness and they got back safely to Te Wera, who, with his men, withdrew to the strong fortress at Pa-katata.
After the slaying of his son, Taoka gathered together his forces and besieged Te Wera in the strongly-fortified pa on the Huri-awa peninsula near Karitane and Puke-tiraki. Te Wera had been preparing for such a contingency, as he had laid in a great stock of preserved birds, fern-root and dried fish, etc., and there was a small but permanent spring in the pa to supply water. The story of the siege has been told in print before so I will not serve it up again. Suffice is it to say that Taoka’s taua besieged the pa for six months and then had to relinquish it owing to the scarcity of food. This had been their difficulty all along, but by scouring the country they managed to keep their leaguer for half a year, and then had to return home. Some time after this Te Wera and a companion chief (whose name my narrator unfortunately forgot and which I have never seen in print) determined to sail for Raki-ura. They set out in their canoes but a storm arose which Te Wera by means of his karakia was able to overcome and continue his course, but the other chief was driven into the bay under the cliff called Tau-o-Tarawhata. He determined to go no further, and constructed a pa called Mapou-tahi on the small peninsula called Goat Island. Soon after Taoka came down like the wolf on the fold and besieged it. The season was winter, and one wild night Taoka sent his men to see if the palisade was guarded. They reported that it was, and Taoka was so surprised that he went to see for himself, and by careful reconnoitring discovered that the supposed sentries were dummies swinging in the wind. His men quietly got into the pa and slaughtered all the inmates except one man who jumped into the sea and escaped. Next day the bodies of the slain were piled up like a large heap of wood, and since then that bay has been known as Pu-rakau-nui.

Lore and History of the South Island Maori
by W. A. Taylor 1952

Leaving Old Waikouaiti or modern Karitane we pass south. Okai hau is the outlet to the sea of the Omimi Greek. The full name of the site of the Omimi railway station is Te Mimi e te haki. The location of the Seacliff Mental Hospital is Turau aruhe. Waikoko is the Seacliff Creek. Potaerua represents the bush at Seacliff and the bight on the coastline towards Omimi is Rau-one. Warrington, the aristocratic weekend resort, bears the name of a famous greenstone weapon Aka hau. Whaitiri-paku was the name of an old native village at what we now call Evansdale. The Evansdale Stream below its Kilmog branch, was an eeling place called Wai moi (sour water). The streams entering Blueskin Bay travelling south were the Totara, Waiputi and Waitete (the latter erroneously spelt Waitati). Waitete means "bubbling water", and no one who has lived alongside its course would question the translation as being truly descriptive.
The Orokonui Stream drains the northern slopes of Mount Mopariui entering the mouth of the Waitete not far away from the Orokonui Mental Hospital. Blueskin was the name of Waitete in the early days. The early settlers named it such after a well-tattooed Maori called Te Hikututu, whose nickname was Blueskin.
A Ngai Tahu chief named Tutakahikura visiting Southland, coveted the wives of a Ngati Mamoe chief named Tutemakeho when the latter chief was away foraging, and abducted the women. A chase from Southland resulted, and Tutemakeho fortunately caught up with the abductor at Pae Kohu (place of frogs) or Green Hill on the divide between the Silverstream and the coastal valleys. It was decided by the warriors to fight the matter out in gladiator fashion at Waitete. Tu te makaho won back his wives, taking them back to Otaupiri. A leaderless hapu of the Ngai Tahu returned to Canterbury.
Approximately 12 miles from Dunedin is Purakaunui page 120wrongly spelt Purakanui, which boasts a large native reserve, and its native inhabitants, who originally hailed from Kaiapoi, are proud of the fact that they are descendants of Ngai Tahu, who were there long before the fall of Kaiapohia, and are not begotten of refugee stock. Away back about the year 1750A.D. the War God Tu controlled the lives of the inhabitants of Purakaunui. Three cousins of chief rank but with no trace of family affection kept the Ngai Tahu Tribe in almost an unbroken state of strife. Their names were Moki II, Taoka and Te Wera. Te Wera of Huriawa Pa at Old Waikouaiti dwelt for a time at Pukekura Pa at Otakou Heads. When there the paramount chief Tu ki taha rangi died, also Moki II’s son. Te Wera was accused of practising makutu (wizardry) on his kinsfolk and killing them. Te Wera fled away to Purakaunui where Te Rehu, his sister’s husband held sway. Moki II was not to be outmatched; so he sent a surprise war party to Purakaunui kainga under the chief Kapo. The house of the chiefs was surrounded and most of the inmates slain, including a chief named Patuki. Te Rehu and Te Wera made a miraculous escape, indeed a wailing for their decease had commenced at Huriawa when they arrived. Safe back in his fortress Te Wera waited and gathered together his warriors. He then set out for Pukekura on which he exacted full vengeance.
Taoka took up the Pukekura cause and besieged Te Wera at Huriawa. He failed to capture that pa, so he turned his attention later to Mapou tahi on Goat Island Peninsula where the railway skirts the Blueskin Cliffs near the tunnel. When Taoha arrived at Mapoutahi in mid-winter, his scouts found the narrow neck of land which gave access to the pa well guarded. One exceptionally wild night, however, the sentries were withdrawn, and dummies put in their place. The ruse worked until Taoka went forth and did scouting for himself. He discovered the true position and Mapou tohi Pa was stormed. Only a few persons escaped by swimming and scaling the vine ladders on the Blueskin Cliffs which had been used for bird nesting.
The name for Goat Island is Mata awhe awhe (dead gathered in a heap), and its isthmus is called after Pakihaukea, its unfortunate defender. The portion of the Blueskin Cliffs nearest to Waitati is Wata awa awa (edge of the valley). The bay east of the peninsula is Paua nui (large ear shell fish). On October 22nd, 1930, Goat Island Peninsula, area 4 acres, was vested as a scenic reserve under the control of the Otago University. Why the Maori people were not favoured with possession is not clear.
Near Mapou tahi the canoe of Waiti named Tau a Tara-whata was wrecked a few centuries ago. Mihiwaka (lament for a canoe) is the hill which separates the Purakaunui Valley page break


Mrs Mere Harper—Old Waikouaiti
page 121 from Otago Harbour. Aorangi (light of heaven) is the hill across Purakaunui Bay near the site of the old whaling station. Opeke is the foot of Foote’s Greek. Ko te wai a pukuraku is a small watercourse near the sand drift to the railway line. Haereoa, Teoti Wahie and Noah were the leading men at Purakaunui in the forties. The present native inhabitants of the reserve are half-castes, being descendants of the old whalers. The Purakaunui Reserve was set aside in pursuance of the infamous Kemp Deed.
Near Purakaunui is Long Beach, known as Whare wera wera, which contains a native reserve of a few hundred acres. The original trustees of this poor quality reserve were Tamati Tiko, Te Ati Poroki, Hipa Porekaha, Riki Tuete and Haereroa. The land is of sandy nature, with, however, miniature lagoons through which a very wandering stream passes, and in the days when the Piorakaunui district once held a large native population, provided good eeling places. There is no doubt that the Maoris living between Purakaunui and Otago Heads suffered severely from European diseases during the period sealing ships were frequenting the coast. The cold-water treatment by the tohungas of influenza and measles could only result in one way—death.
South of Longbeach is Murdering Beach which should be known by its Maori name of Whare ake ake. On December 24th, 1817, a Tasmanian brig named the Sophia, commanded by Captain Kelly, anchored there to trade with the Maoris. However a man named Tucker was recognised as a person who at Riverton traded in dried Maori heads. Such sacrilege quite rightly brought down on the pakahas the anger of the Maoris. Tucker fell to the blow of a mere wielded by Te Matahaere, as did two or three others. The remaining boatsmen returned to the ship for reinforcements, and in the skirmish the Maoris were defeated, and prisoners taken back to the Sophia, including the chief Korako, a progenitor of the Taiaroa family. The Maoris rallied under the chief Tukarekare, and in canoes attacked the ship, but without success. Korako rejoined his friends by jumping overboard to the canoes. The Europeans then killed their other prisoners, and sailed away to Otakou Heads where they destroyed the native village.
The bay south of Whare ake ake is called Kaikai after a Ngati Mamoe man dwelling there in a cave in the early days. The proper name is Takeratawhai. The cave belonging to Kaikai is now used as a sheep pen. A heavy "tapu" rested on Murdering Beach until it was lifted by a North Island tohunga at the request of the Purakaunui Maoris. The three bays south of Purakaunui have been the happy hunting-grounds of curio collectors, alas many not venerating the burial-places. It has been estimated that 3½ tons of worked greenstone has been page 122recovered. In 1912 a large part of this collection passed to British and American museums.

In 1926 a curious adze hogbacked with a very narrow cutting edge was found. Mr Washbourne Hunter was the land owner in the early days, and during his time 400 curios were discovered. Two dozen greenstone tikis have been found at Whare ake ake. The late Mr Murray Thomson, who had a weekend house at Murdering Beach, was an enthusiastic collector, and he assisted greatly the archaeological section of the Otago Institute during a fortnight of March 1935, in cross trenching, digging and searching every nook and corner of Kaikai, Murdering and Longbeach, and the chance of finding a good cache of curios is now very remote. Though a "green-stone workers’ factory" the meres found have invariably been executed in slaty stone.
When Edward Shortland visited Purakaunui in October 1843, the Maori population had dwindled to 32 persons. Pukai-a-te-ao and Kaitipu of the Huirapa hapu had succeeded Urukino in the leadership. When Mantell made his census of Purakaunui in connection with the sale of the Ngai Tahu Block the inhabitants numbered 46. The majority of the people belonged to the Ngai tuna hapu. The Huirapa hapu (mostly females) counted 8 and the Ngati Tuahuriri 2 persons. The few Maoris who now occupy Purakaunui are half-caste descendants of whalers. The settlement is now a popular Dunedin weekend resort. The little fenced-in cemetery on the Purakaunui Spit alone reminds the visitor of the Maori backgroundOld Waikouaiti and Purakaunui are usually by-passed by motorists journeying to Dunedin who travel on the Main Road. The Main Road from modern Waikouaiti to Waitati crosses over the well-known Kilmog Hill, Kilmog being a corruption of the Maori name of the plant Kirimoko known to botanists as Septospermum ericoides, which grows profusely in the locality.

Otago Daily Times 29 December 2011

Rakau is the Maori word for stick and pu-rakau-nui means big pile of wood or sticks. About 1750, a massacre happened at Mapoutahi, a fortified pa on the headland near what is now Purakaunui.

Two Kai Tahu cousins had "the mother of all scraps" at the pa which resulted in one cousin killing the other cousin’s son.

The grieving father waited 12 months to exact his revenge. He gathered a war party and attacked the pa for 10 days. That night, with snow lying deep on the ground, his warriors broke through. Dazed from sleep, 250 villagers were killed. Only a few were able to survive by jumping from the cliffs into the sea.

Dawn revealed a ghastly sight; the villagers’ bodies had been piled into a huge heap.

The brown shapes, covered in places with a mantle of snow, resembled a wood pile and the survivors named the place Purakaunui.

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On the shoulders of giants – Peter Graham – Paris Brassband

Paris Brassband, direction Florent Didier au championnat de France des Brassbands à Amiens, le 30 janvier 2011. Catégorie Excellence.
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Acknowledging the scientists who blazed intellectual trails before him, Isaac Newton wrote, “If I have seen a little further it was by standing on the shoulders of giants.” In this special annual series, we invite our audience to stand on the shoulders of a modern-day giant. This year, we are honored to present an address by a titan of physics, Barry Barish. Professor Barish served as the Director of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) from 1997-2005 and created the LIGO Scientific Collaboration. This year—one hundred years after Einstein’s prediction of gravitational waves—Professor Barish and the entire LIGO team announced a dramatic milestone: the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of the merger of a pair of black holes. Join us for Professor Barish’s 2016 On the Shoulders of Giants address, “From Einstein to Gravitational Waves and Beyond.”

Original program date: June 4, 2016

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Introduction by Brian Greene 00:05

Barry Barish introduction 1:26

Newton’s Theory of Gravity 3:36

Mercury’s Orbit 9:14

What is the Einstein Cross? 16:23

Einstein predicted gravitational waves 20:30

How to make a gravitational waves 29:59

First interferometer exploration by Robert Forward 37:37

How does LIGO work? 42:30

LIGO beam pipe 47:50

What LIGO measured 54:46

Where to look for gravitational waves1:00:06

Where is LIGO going to go now? 1:02:20
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Whoopi Goldberg: “This is why Black People don’t want to talk to White People”

Tempers flare on The View after Whoopi brings up Van Jones, who suggests the election was “Whitelash” and Whoopi concurs.
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Whoopi Goldberg reveals how integral Patrick Swayze was to getting her her role in Ghost, and the Loose Women present her with a very special pair of shoes.
From series 21, broadcast on 10/02/2017

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Dying Light: The Bozak Horde – PS4 [Digital Code] Reviews

Dying Light: The Bozak Horde – PS4 [Digital Code]

Dying Light: The Bozak Horde - PS4 [Digital Code]

It’s time for you to go on the offensive! Enter the Stadium, the most famous landmark in Harran, and delve straight into the carnage. Go alone or join forces with other survivors to test your combat know-how against relentless hordes of the Infected. Unlock new skills and become the champion of Harran’s stadium. Video output in Full HD 1080p requires 1080p native display.

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